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    Android

    Android root

    Android Rooting

    What is rooting?

    kali linux tutorial
    ​Rooting is the process of allowing users of smartphones, tablets and other devices running the Android mobile operating system to attain privileged control (known as root access) over various Android subsystems. As Android uses the Linux kernel, rooting an Android device gives similar access to administrative (superuser) permissions as on Linux or any other Unix-like operating system such as FreeBSD or OS X.
    Rooting is often performed with the goal of overcoming limitations that carriers and hardware manufacturers put on some devices. Thus, rooting gives the ability (or permission) to alter or replace system applications and settings, run specialized applications ("apps") that require administrator-level permissions, or perform other operations that are otherwise inaccessible to a normal Android user. On Android, rooting can also facilitate the complete removal and replacement of the device's operating system, usually with a more recent release of its current operating system.
    Root access is sometimes compared to jailbreaking devices running the Apple iOS operating system. However, these are different concepts: Jailbreaking is the bypass of several types of Apple prohibitions for the end user, including modifying the operating system (enforced by a "locked bootloader"), installing non-officially approved applications via sideloading, and granting the user elevated administration-level privileges (rooting). Only a minority of Android devices lock their bootloaders, and many vendors such as HTC, Sony, Asus and Google explicitly provide the ability to unlock devices, and even replace the operating system entirely.[1][2][3] Similarly, the ability to sideload applications is typically permissible on Android devices without root permissions. Thus, it is primarily the third aspect of iOS jailbreaking (giving users administrative privileges) that most directly correlates to Android rooting.

    Rooting lets all user-installed applications run privileged commands typically unavailable to the devices in the stock configuration. Rooting is required for more advanced and potentially dangerous operations including modifying or deleting system files, removing pre-installed applications, and low-level access to the hardware itself (rebooting, controlling status lights, or recalibrating touch inputs.)

    A typical rooting installation also installs the Superuser application, which supervises applications that are granted root or superuser rights by requesting approval from the user before granting said permissions. A secondary operation, unlocking the device's bootloader verification, is required to remove or replace the installed operating system.
    In contrast to iOS jailbreaking, rooting is not needed to run applications distributed outside of the Google Play Store, sometimes called sideloading.

     The Android OS supports this feature natively in two ways: through the "Unknown sources" option in the Settings menu and through the Android Debug Bridge. However, some US carriers, including AT&T, prevented the installation of applications not on the Play Store in firmware,[4] although several devices are not subject to this rule, including the Samsung Infuse 4G;[5] AT&T lifted the restriction on most devices by the middle of 2011.


    As of 2011, the Amazon Kindle Fire defaults to the Amazon Appstore instead of Google Play, though like most other Android devices, Kindle Fire allows sideloading of applications from unknown sources,[7] and the "easy installer" application on the Amazon Appstore makes this easy. Other vendors of Android devices may look to other sources in the future. Access to alternate apps may require rooting but rooting is not always necessary.kali linux tutorial

    Rooting an Android phone lets the owner add, edit or delete system files, which in turn lets them perform various tweaks and use apps that require root access.[8]
    Advantages
    Advantages of rooting include the possibility for complete control over the look and feel of the device. As a superuser has access to the device's system files, all aspects of the operating system can be customized with the only real limitation being the level of coding expertise.[9] Immediately expectable advantages of rooted devices include the following
    Support for themes, allowing everything to be visually changed from the color of the battery icon, to the boot animation that appears while the device is booting, and more.
    Full control of the kernel, which, for example, allows overclocking and underclocking the CPU and GPU.

    Full application control, including the ability to backup, restore, or batch edit applications, or to remove bloatware that comes pre-installed on many phones.
    Custom automated system-level processes through the use of third-party applications.

    Ability to install a custom firmware (also known as a custom ROM) that allows additional levels of control on a rooted device.
    Methods

    Some rooting methods involve use of the command prompt and development interface called Android Debug Bridge (ADB), while other methods may use specialized applications and be as simple as clicking one button.

    Devices, or sometimes even different variants of the same device, can have different hardware configurations. Thus, if the guide, ROM, or root method used is for a device variant with a different hardware setup, there is a risk of bricking the device.

    The distinction between "soft rooting" through a third-party application which uses a security vulnerability ("root exploit") and "hard-rooting" by flashing a su binary executable is sometimes made. If a phone can be soft rooted, it is vulnerable to malware.
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