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    Jailbreak


    jailbreak
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    What is a jailbreak?


    Jailbreak information

    iOS jailbreaking is the process of removing software restrictions imposed by iOS, Apple's mobile operating system, on devices running it through the use of software exploits. These devices are the iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, and the AppleTV 2 and 4. Jailbreaking permits root access to the iOS file system, allowing the downloading and installation of additional applications, extensions, and themes that are unavailable through the official Apple App Store.

    iOS jailbreaking dates back to the original iPhone in July 2007 and has continued into the present day. Apple has responded with updates to iOS patching exploits and with new hardware. Jailbreaking communities have not been legally threatened. The legal status of jailbreaking is unclear in most countries; while many prohibit tampering with digital locks, they tolerate jailbreaks that do not infringe on copyrights. In 2010, 2012, and 2015, the U.S. Copyright Office approved exemptions allowing smartphone users to jailbreak their devices.

    iOS jailbreaking is the process of removing software restrictions imposed by iOS, Apple Inc's operating system, on its devices including the iPhone, iPod touch, iPad, and second-generation Apple TV. Jailbreaking is done by using software exploits, and it permits root access to the iOS file system and manager, so applications, extensions, and themes unavailable through the official Apple App Store can be downloaded.


    Jailbreaking in general means breaking the device out of its "jail"a metaphor used in Unix-style systems, for example in "FreeBSD jail". A jailbroken iPhone, iPod touch, or iPad running iOS can still use the App Store, iTunes, and other normal functions, such as making telephone calls. Furthermore, a jailbroken device can be reverted to a standard 'jailed' device by restoring the device in Recovery Mode.
    Jailbreaking is a form of privilege escalation and describes privilege escalation on devices by other manufacturers as well.

    Motivations
    One of the reasons for jailbreaking is to expand the feature set limited by Apple and its App Store. Apple checks apps for compliance with its iOS Developer Program License Agreement before accepting them for distribution in the App Store. However, their reasons for banning apps are not limited to safety and security and may be regarded as arbitrary and capricious.[9] In one case, Apple mistakenly banned an app by a Pulitzer-Winning cartoonist because it violated its developer license agreement, which specifically bans apps that "contain content that ridicules public figures."To access banned apps, users rely on jailbreaking to circumvent Apple's censorship of content and features. Jailbreaking permits the downloading of programs not approved by Apple, such as user interface customization and tweaks.
    Device customization


    Since software programs available through Cydia are not required to adhere to App Store guidelines, many of them are not typical self-contained apps but instead are extensions and customizations for iOS and other apps (commonly called tweaks).Users install these programs for purposes including personalization and customization of the interface by tweaks developed by developers and designers, adding desired features and fixing annoyances, and making development work on the device easier by providing access to the filesystem and command-line tools.
    Many Chinese iOS device owners also jailbreak their phones to install third-party Chinese character input systems because they are easier to use than Apple's.


    Use of handset on multiple carriers
    Jailbreaking also opens the possibility for using software to unofficially unlock carrier-locked iPhones so they can be used with other carriers.
    Software-based unlocks have been available since September 2007,[19] with each tool applying to a specific iPhone model and baseband version (or multiple models and versions).[20] This includes the iPhone 4S, iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPhone 3G models.

    An example of unlocking an iPhone through a Jailbreak utility would be Redsn0w. Through this software, iPhone users will be able to create a custom IPSW and unlock their device. Moreover, during the unlocking process, there are options to Install Cydia and iPad baseband as well.
    Installation of malware

    Computer criminals may jailbreak an iPhone to install malware, or target jailbroken iPhones on which malware can be installed more easily. The Italian cybersecurity company Hacking Team, which sells hacking software to law enforcement agencies, advised police to jailbreak iPhones to allow tracking software to be installed on them.[21][22]
    Software piracy

    On iPhones, the installation of consumer software is generally restricted to installation through the App Store. Jailbreaking, therefore, allows the installation of pirated applications.[23] It has been suggested that a major motivation for Apple to prevent jailbreaking is to protect the income of its App Store, including third-party developers and allow the buildup of a sustainable market for third-party software.[24] However, the installation of pirated applications is also possible without jailbreaking
    Types of jailbreaks
    When a device is booting, it loads Apple's own kernel initially. The device must then be exploited and have the kernel patched each time it is turned on.

    An "untethered" jailbreak has the property that if the user turns the device off and back on, the device will start up completely, and the kernel will be patched without the help of a computer – thus enabling the user to boot without the need to use a computer. These jailbreaks are harder to make and take a lot of reverse engineering and years of experience.

    With a "tethered" jailbreak, a computer is needed to turn the device on each time it is rebooted. If the device starts back up on its own, it will no longer have a patched kernel, and it may get stuck in a partially started state. By using a computer, the phone is essentially "re-jailbroken" (using the "boot tethered" feature of a jailbreaking tool) each time it is turned on.[26] With a tethered jailbreak, the user can still restart SpringBoard ("respring") on the device without needing to reboot.

    There is also "semi-tethered" solution, which means that when the device boots, it will no longer have a patched kernel (so it will not be able to run modified code), but it will still be usable for normal functions such as making phone calls, or texting.[27] To use any features that require running modified code, the user must start the device with the help of the jailbreaking tool in order for it to start with a patched kernel (jailbroken).
    In July 2016, PPJailbreak introduced the "semi-untethered" jailbreak, which functions like a semi-tethered solution in that when the device boots, it no longer has a patched kernel (and thus access to jailbroken functions,) but also like an untethered device, in that a computer is not required to re-patch the kernel in order to re-enable the jailbreak. It is accomplished by installing an app that re-patches the kernel after rebooting.
    Comparison to Android rooting

    Jailbreaking of iOS devices has sometimes been compared to "rooting" of Android devices. Although both concepts involve privilege escalation, they differ in scope. Some Android devices allow users to modify or replace the operating system after unlocking the bootloader.[28][29][30] Moreover, nearly all Android phones have an option to allow the user to install unknown, 3rd-party apps, so no exploit is needed for normal sideloading.[31]
    iOS is engineered with security measures including a "locked bootloader" to prevent users from modifying the operating system, and to prevent apps from gaining root privileges; jailbreaking an iOS device to defeat all security measures presents a significant technical challenge. It violates Apple's end-user license agreement for iOS.[32] Until 2015 sideloading apps in general was difficult for most individual users, requiring them to purchase developer membership, while corporations could install private applications onto corporate phones.[33] After 2015, this became free for all users, however doing so requires a basic understanding of Xcode and compiling iOS Apps. Apps installed this way have the restrictions of all other apps.
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